Development and application of the simulation trai

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Development and application of crane simulation trainer

Abstract: through the analysis of the training status of port loading and unloading machinery drivers at home and abroad, this paper discusses the practical significance and benefits of developing and applying computer simulation trainer in China, puts forward a preliminary plan of computer simulation trainer, and explains its function, structure and working principle

key words: crane; computer; Simulation trainer; Port

with the rapid development and wide application of computer technology, multimedia technology and automatic control technology, various simulation trainers based on computer system and control console have become the necessary means for operators of major production equipment or process control equipment to work and train. They have been highly valued at home and abroad, and have been widely used in thermal power and nuclear power generation, petrochemical industry, military aerospace Navigation and many other fields are widely used. At present, simulation training device has gradually become one of the important equipment for training pilots of aircraft, cars, ships and so on. Crane is the main equipment for loading and unloading goods in ports, railway freight yards and industrial and mining enterprises. With the development of port lifting equipment towards high-speed, large-scale and automation, the cost of equipment is increasing, and the quality requirements of operators are higher and higher. At the same time, the technical proficiency of operators plays a decisive role in port production safety, equipment efficiency, service life and port economic benefits. According to the survey data of various aspects, there is no real computer simulation training device for port crane drivers in China at present. Due to its high price, this equipment has not been imported from abroad. With the rapid development of modern science and technology and the improvement of port production and management level, using computer system for driver simulation training has become an urgent need to cultivate high-quality personnel

1 practical significance of developing and applying simulation trainers

research and development of simulation trainers has great practical significance:

1) good security. The occurrence of training accidents is eliminated and the loss of training accidents is reduced

2) good economy. It has low energy consumption, long service life, easy maintenance and expansion, and can be used for multiple purposes. One simulator can simulate the operation of various models. Long term use can greatly reduce the manpower and material resources of port enterprises in the training work, reduce the operation intensity, improve the experimental efficiency and reduce the training cost

3) strong function. Using computer simulation software, through human-computer interaction, we can realize the simulation of various working conditions and weather conditions in the process of dock loading and unloading, so as to greatly shorten the training cycle of students. The trainees can complete the training tasks in a short time and improve the training quality

4) widely applicable. Regular training can be carried out for employees at different levels to improve the comprehensive quality of employees

2 overview and development trend of driver training of port handling machinery at home and abroad

2.1 overview of driver training of large fixed lifting machinery in domestic ports

at present, training centers or technical schools have been set up in major ports in China to train port crane drivers, but the teaching equipment in these training centers is generally only such as tire cranes, truck cranes and other machinery, not such as portal cranes Quayside container loading and unloading bridge and other large lifting machinery. Therefore, the operation training of these machines can only be carried out on the actual crane of the port handling company. At present, the operation training of port crane drivers is mostly completed by the way of master with apprentice in the loading and unloading company. Generally speaking, it takes about a year for a novice to obtain an employment certificate. This is because portal cranes, quayside container loading and unloading bridges and other complex and expensive equipment, novice operations are prone to safety accidents and affect the production efficiency of the port, and the training work will also be limited by weather conditions. During the one-year study with the master, the actual operation hours of the students are only about one month in total. This is because the students need to observe the master's operation for a period of time before they can start carefully. At present, most of the inland ports and newly-built ports have not set up education and training centers, so it is often necessary to spend a certain amount of training fees to send trainees to other ports for training or to be led by experienced drivers in port companies. Compared with the use of computer simulation trainer, this training method has the following shortcomings:

1) unsafe and prone to accidents (4) start the experimental machine

2) it needs to spend a lot of manpower and material resources

3) training on actual equipment has affected the normal production of the enterprise

4) the training content is not standardized, random, and it is difficult to train the ability to deal with mechanical accidents

5) the training time is relatively long

2.2 overview of foreign crane operator training

cargo handling is a dangerous special work, and the operation of crane drivers directly affects the safety of life and property. Therefore, western developed countries have legislated on the operation training of crane drivers, stipulating that new drivers must attend the training in the training center approved by the government, and can only engage in this work after obtaining the qualification certificate. In addition to safety considerations, the technical level of operators directly affects the production efficiency, the service life of machinery and equipment and the economic benefits of enterprises. Therefore, the technical training of port machinery operators has attracted attention from all aspects. To this end, foreign countries often organize international conferences on port training to discuss port training and training equipment. At the same time, foreign countries, such as the United States, have corresponding social organizations, joint production manufacturers, user units, training centers, etc. once or twice a year to check the working conditions and qualifications of cranes, or discuss the training of operators, certification standards, etc. Generally speaking, there are different training contents and training periods for different lifting machinery. Even for the same type of crane, it will be different according to the different lifting capacity, and the corresponding qualification certificate will be issued after training

this work is supervised and implemented by government departments. For example, the Ishikawa Shimao Technical Institute of Ishikawa Shimo Co., Ltd., a private training center, has the training and certification qualifications approved by the Japanese government for drivers and electricians of cranes such as mobile cranes such as truck type and tire type cranes, gantry cranes, bridge cranes, and construction machinery, and provides safety education and skill training services for the society. Since its establishment in 1974, more than 70000 people have obtained qualification certificates in the Institute. The Institute has only 12 teachers, including 4 part-time teachers, and a total of 21 people who manage multiple or wrong forces, but it can complete the training of 8000 people every year. This is inseparable from the Institute's complete teaching facilities, equipment and standardized teaching. In developed countries, such as the United States, Canada, France, Australia and other countries, some port or crane driver employment organizations use computer simulation trainers to carry out pre job training or skill retraining for drivers, and have achieved good economic and social benefits. At present, the ports in Southeast Asia and South America also attach great importance to the training of employees. In recent years, the ports of Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Jamaica have also introduced crane computer simulation trainers from the United States. Advanced teaching equipment not only ensures the teaching quality, but also shortens the training cycle

3 functions of crane simulator training device

according to the needs of port training in China, in our proposed scheme of a set of port crane driver computer simulator training device, advanced computer, multimedia and automatic control technology are used to realize the simulation training function of lifting machinery such as gantry crane or quayside container loading and unloading bridge, Thus, the computer simulation training system is used to partially or mostly replace the operation training of the real machine. The main functions include:

1) providing a complete set of operating system in the cab, which has the function of simulating the operation of four mechanisms, such as lifting, slewing, luffing and walking of the gantry crane

2) realize the simulation function of real-time operation of loading and unloading goods from the ship, and realize all kinds of real feelings of the driver when the mechanism starts, runs and brakes, including the real feelings of human senses on the scene, sound, vibration, etc

3) with a set of standardized driver operation tutorials and safety education courses

4) according to the evaluation requirements of crane drivers, the operation training of different tools and accessories such as grab and hook can be realized

5) by using multimedia technology and advanced image processing technology, various weather conditions can be simulated as needed, such as sunny, cloudy, overcast, day and night operations, and the impact of different wind speeds and directions on cargo handling

6) the instructor can understand the operation of students and control and adjust the teaching content in real time on the training platform, such as changing the weather conditions, lifting weight, etc

7) the evaluation software system can realize operation error prompt, real-time scoring function and evaluation result report

4 working principle and structural composition of the simulation trainer

the crane driver simulation trainer is composed of two parts: the instructor's room and the driver's operation room. One hand grabs the capacity, as shown in Figure 1

Figure 1 Teacher's room and driver's operation room

4.1 the driver's operation room

is equipped with a set of gantry crane (or container loading bridge) operation console, including various buttons, instruments, indicators, operating handles, foot pedals and driver's seats. They can be placed on a movable base with three degrees of freedom, as shown in Figure 1, directly indoors, or in the cab, and the whole cab is supported on the movable base. The operator can see the actual scene of the port from the high-performance projector on the screen through the "window". The sound box in the operation room can emit various working sounds in the actual scene, such as the operation of the motor, the starting and braking of the mechanism, the sound transmitted by the hook operator through wireless and the sound of the port production site

4.2 teacher room

the console in the teacher room is equipped with a simulation host computer, an intelligent interface control system including an industrial computer, an image processing computer, two color displays, a printer, a regulated power supply, etc. Figure 2 is the structure diagram of the simulation trainer. When students operate on the console, their signals are sent to the intelligent interface system, and the information is sent to the simulation host and hydraulic servo system through information conversion. The main control computer runs the corresponding mathematical model according to the received data, inputs the calculation results into the graphic simulation software and sound database, and controls the graphic and sound output, so as to reflect the simulation image and sound effect in real time. The hydraulic servo system controls the action of the movable base according to the received information, such as lifting heavy objects, and making the driver feel sinking through the platform when the heavy objects are off the ground. Make the driver feel similar to the actual model operation from the image, sound and platform activities. The instructor can send different training contents to the students through the simulation host. The printer can print the results of student training and assessment as needed. Since the core of the computer simulation training device is the computer system, using one simulator hardware can provide students with a variety of models of cranes through the simulation software module equipped with the training content of different crane models and the effect image of human-computer interaction

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